GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal <p><a href=""><br></a>GiST Journal&nbsp; is currently listed in the following international agencies: MLA - Modern Language Association, ERA - Educational Research Abstracts, Linguistics Abstracts Online, ERIC, CLASE - Citas Latinoamericanas en Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Proquest CSA, EBSCO Host, Dialnet, REDIB, DOAJ, Emerging Sources Citation, and Ulrich´'s Periodicals Directory.&nbsp; The journal's focus is to disseminate the results of national and international research being carried out in the field of language education, in particular bilingual education, as well as innovations in language teaching and learning.&nbsp; As GIST is a bi-annual publication, the Editorial Committee of carries out two calls for papers, approximately in April and November of each year. <a href=""></a></p> Institución Universitaria Colombo Americana-ÚNICA en-US GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 1692-5777 Reviewers <p><strong><em>Gist would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable comments and thoughtful revision:</em></strong></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Edgar Lucero Babativa</strong>, <em>Universidad de La Salle</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Fredy Rozo</strong>, <em>Fundación Universidad de América</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Jair Ayala-Zárate</strong>, <em>Educational Testing Services</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Ayşegül Takkaç-Tulga</strong>r, <em>Atatürk University, </em>Turkey</p> <p><strong>Diana Rocío Umaña Buitrag</strong>o, <em>Universidad del Rosario</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Paul Abraham</strong>, <em>Simmons College</em>, USA</p> <p><strong>Juan Carlos Torres Rincón</strong>, <em>Universidad de La Sabana</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Juan Ríos Vega</strong>, <em>Bradley University</em>, USA</p> <p><strong>Claudia Acero</strong>, <em>Universidad de La Sabana</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Rigoberto Castillo</strong>, <em>Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Adriana Castañeda Londoño</strong>, <em>Universidad de los Andes</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Sanja Škific</strong>, <em>University of Zadar</em>, Croatia</p> <p><strong>Alexander Ramírez</strong>, <em>Universidad del Valle</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Meral Gözüküçük</strong>, <em>Kafkas University</em>, Turkey</p> <p><strong>Margarita López</strong>, <em>Universidad de Caldas</em>, Colombia</p> <p><strong>Diego Ubaque</strong>, <em>Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas</em>, Colombia</p> Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 Editorial Carlo Granados-Beltrán Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 Transforming an Educational Community in Guatemala Using the Plan Do Study Act Cycle <p>This case study with educators from a school in an urban low socioeconomic neighborhood near Guatemala City, Guatemala, explored the effectiveness of the Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle (PDSA) to guide teachers’ professional development at a Pre-K-K public school (Langley, 2009). This three-year study focused on developing teacher leaders and researchers through self-reflective accountability. Findings documented institutional problems requiring immediate and long-term attention and ways to involve families in extending literacy instruction at school to the home front. Study results highlight the need for effective and empowering literacy methods to be used in Guatemala and suggest the country’s teachers wish to support students’ critical thinking and create democratic classrooms.</p> <p> </p> Mayra C Daniel Teresa Wasonga Ximena Burgin Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 151 168 10.26817/16925777.1053 Visual Mnemonic Technique : An Effective Learning Strategy <p>This study was designed to investigate the impact of visual mnemonic technique on young and adult Iranian &nbsp;English learnersʹ vocabulary learning. The current study followed quasi- experimental design. 48 female students were selected based on their performance on Quick Placement Test. The purpose of the QPT was to homogenize the participants based on their proficiency level. The participants were divided into four groups, two experimental and two control groups. Each group consisted of 12 participants. Prior to the treatment, the participants of both groups were given a pretest to determine the knowledge of vocabulary in the experimental and control groups. Then the experimental groups received the visual mnemonic technique for 8 sessions. The control groups went through a traditional method of teaching vocabulary. After 8 sessions, a posttest was administered to all groups. Two-way between-groups ANOVA was run to the results of the vocabulary tests to look at the individual and joint effect of the independent variables on dependent variable. It was concluded that mnemonic technique significantly affected Iranian pre- intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary leaning.&nbsp; The study exhibited that the experimental group who received instruction on mnemonic technique outperformed their counterparts in posttest of vocabulary.&nbsp; However, the differences between the effects of mnemonic technique for young and adult learners who received the specific treatment were not statistically significant (P≥ .05).</p> Parisa Farrokh Hengameh Vaezi Hamed Ghadimi Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 7 32 10.26817/16925777.1042 Language Proficiency Development and Study Abroad Experience: A Study On EFL Learners <p>Study abroad experience (SA) has been regarded as one of the best ways to enhance English language proficiency because it offers opportunities for learners to experience the use of English in real instances. The present study attempted to explore the language development of a group of EFL learners participating in Erasmus program for SA experience where English is not used as L1. To achieve this, the data were collected through three instruments; Language Contact Profile (LCP), Then and Now Survey, and semi-structured interviews. Fifty-nine students answered LCP and Then and Now self-assessment and eight students were interviewed. The quantitative result revealed that students experienced greater gains in their oral skills. On the other hand, qualitative results confirm the greater gains in speaking skills with respect to other skills. Moreover, the results highlighted the significance of the learning context and the quality and quantity of interaction for language development.</p> Fatma Kaya Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 33 58 10.26817/16925777.943 A Collaborative Autoethnography on Raciolinguistic Experiences and the Construction of Linguistic Identities During an Intercultural Exchange <p style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;">This research is a Collaborative Autoethnography based on personal experiences as Au Pairs in the United States.&nbsp; It aims to analyze the contributions of an intercultural exchange towards the construction of the teacher’s identity. It also seeks to analyze the current foreign language teaching practices in Colombia. We achieved more significant English teaching insights from our reflections, considering a flexible language structure, more comprehensive vocabulary, and English variety. Besides, this life-changing exposed ourselves to a target context that enriched our global notions and enhanced a new linguistic identity. Two years of living abroad made us think about a different teaching ideology founded on developing interest and sensibility for diverse cultures accepting broader linguistic features of the language. The results support the idea that educators shift those traditional strategies to more context-bound and intercultural ones to meet today’s needs and place the language as a means of co-construction of reality.</p> María Paula Campos Campos Stephany Garzón Roa María Paula Méndez Jairo Enrique Castañeda Trujillo Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 59 78 10.26817/16925777.976 Exploring the Barriers to online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic. A case of Pakistani Students from HEIs [Higher Education Institutions] <p>The main objective of this study is to explore various barriers that are preventing Pakistani HEIs (universities) students from learning online in this COVID-19 pandemic. Applying a qualitative research design, twelve (12) in-depth interviews were conducted with individual business school participants (students), selected at undergraduate and graduate levels to participate. Data were collected from six (06) universities in Islamabad, Pakistan. After collecting the data using a self-developed questionnaire, a thematic analysis method within the qualitative research was applied to uncover several barriers relating to the objective of this study. Eight themes emerged from the interview data: internet technology access, the content of digital slides, student’s perception towards online learning, power outages during COVID-19 pandemic, students’ fear of losing marks and impact on employment, faculty skills in using technology to teach online, student’s stress and health in the COVID-19 pandemic and student skills to use distance learning tools. Based on the findings, students who live in rural areas are more affected by online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic than students in urban areas due to identified barriers and, most importantly, lack of technology infrastructure. Opportunities and future recommendations have been provided to the relevant authorities to conduct and deliver smooth online education in the country during pandemic.</p> Muhammad Arsalan Nazir Mohsin Raza Khan Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 81 106 10.26817/16925777.1195 On the Effectiveness of Scaffolding Strategies and Task orientation on Receptive and Productive Knowledge of Lexical Collocations <p>The present study aimed at investigating the effects of scaffolding strategies using input and output-oriented tasks on Iranian EFL learners' receptive and productive knowledge of lexical collocations. For this purpose, 540 adult intermediate-level EFL learners- both male and female- were selected and divided into six experimental groups; three input-oriented and three output-oriented tasks. Each experimental group received treatment under one of the three scaffolding strategies of direct corrective feedback, cooperative group technique, and visual cues. After the treatment period, a 40-item multiple-choice test and a 40-item fill-in-the-blanks test were administered to assess the participants' receptive and productive collocations knowledge. To analyze the data, two separate two-way ANOVA procedures were used. The results indicated that visual cues were the most effective scaffolding strategy in teaching lexical collocations. Moreover, the cooperative group technique had a significant positive impact on learning collocations compared to direct corrective feedback. The results also showed that the participants in the output-oriented tasks group significantly outperformed those in the input-oriented tasks group. These findings can have practical implications for language learners, teachers, and materials developers, and theoretical implications for researchers.</p> Azam Naserpour Abbas Ali Zarei Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 107 134 10.26817/16925777.1130 Problems of Teaching Phonological Awareness to Learning Disabilities Students <p>This study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of using a phonological awareness-based instructional program in developing the phonetic sequential-memorization skill among students with learning disabilities in the Aseer region. The study sample consisted of forty students from the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades, selected from schools in the Directorate of Education in the Aseer region. The sample was diagnosed by the special education teacher as having learning disabilities. The study used the quasi-experimental methodology and divided the sample into an experimental group and a control group. After applying the instructional program, the results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in acquiring the phonetic sequential-memorization skill. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the phonetic sequential-memorization skill due to the difference of grade. It is concluded that the instructional program has a continuing effect in developing the phonetic sequential-memorization skill among students with learning disabilities in the Aseer region.</p> Mohamad Ahmad Saleem Khasawneh Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 135 149 10.26817/16925777.961 Social Presence in an Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) in English during Covid-19 <p>Many educational institutions had to move their face-to-face modality to online modality in a sudden way due to coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). On this reflection a foreign language teacher describes his social experience in an Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) when he moved his face-to-face classes to online ones. Based on Rourke et al. (2001) and Swan (2019), three elements were found on his online experience: cohesive teaching strategies, affective teaching strategies, and interactive teaching experiences. Asking for students’ mental health, giving advice, and keeping the video on were some of the strategies used. Conclusions suggest that it is vital to introduce people as human beings and touch their own realities during Covid-19 times. Recommendations include not only assessment practices such as take home exams, self-assessment and peer-assessment, but also monitor the ongoing process during emergency times.</p> Sergio Alonso Lopera Copyright (c) 2021 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 23 169 182 10.26817/16925777.967