On the Effectiveness of Scaffolding Strategies and Task orientation on Receptive and Productive Knowledge of Lexical Collocations





Collocations, Cooperative group, Scaffolding Strategies, Task Orientation, Visual Cues


The present study aimed at investigating the effects of scaffolding strategies using input and output-oriented tasks on Iranian EFL learners' receptive and productive knowledge of lexical collocations. For this purpose, 540 adult intermediate-level EFL learners- both male and female- were selected and divided into six experimental groups; three input-oriented and three output-oriented tasks. Each experimental group received treatment under one of the three scaffolding strategies of direct corrective feedback, cooperative group technique, and visual cues. After the treatment period, a 40-item multiple-choice test and a 40-item fill-in-the-blanks test were administered to assess the participants' receptive and productive collocations knowledge. To analyze the data, two separate two-way ANOVA procedures were used. The results indicated that visual cues were the most effective scaffolding strategy in teaching lexical collocations. Moreover, the cooperative group technique had a significant positive impact on learning collocations compared to direct corrective feedback. The results also showed that the participants in the output-oriented tasks group significantly outperformed those in the input-oriented tasks group. These findings can have practical implications for language learners, teachers, and materials developers, and theoretical implications for researchers.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Azam Naserpour, Imam Khomeini International University, Iran

holds a Ph.D.  in TEFL.  She has been teaching as a lecturer at Lorestan and Ayatollah Borujerdi Universities, Iran. She has written some books and published several academic articles in national and international journals. Her primary research interests concern second language acquisition, psycholinguistics, language assessment, and teacher education.  

Abbas Ali Zarei, Imam Khomeini International University, Iran

associate professor in TEFL, is currently a member of academic staff at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) in Qazvin. He has had 57 books and 125 papers published. He has also attended and presented at 75 conferences across the world


Ahmadpour, L., & Yousefi. M. H. (2016). Group collaboration, scaffolding instruction, and peer assessment of Iranian EFL learners' oral tasks. The Journal of Applied Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamics and Advances, 4(1), 31-44.

Alavinia, P., & Rahimi, H. (2019). Task types effects and task involvement load on vocabulary learning of EFL learners. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 1501-1516. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12196a

Alipanahi, F., & Naghiloo, M. (2016). Feedback and learning English collocation. ELT Voices- International Journal for Teachers of English, 6(5), 61-69.

Almasi, E., & Nemat Tabrizi, A. (2016). The effects of direct vs. indirect corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 3(1), 74-85.

Ammar, A., & Spada, N. (2006). One size fits all? Recasts, prompts, and L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(4), 543 -574. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060268

Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Baleghizadeh, S., & Gordani, Y. (2012). Academic writing and grammatical accuracy: The role of corrective feedback. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal, 6, 159-176.

Beaman, C. P. (2002). Inverting the modality effect in serial recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Experimental Psychology, 55(2), 371-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980143000307

Bird, S. A., & Williams, N. J. (2002). The effect of bimodal input on implicit and explicit memory: An investigation into the benefits of within-language subtitling. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23(4), 509-533. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716402004022

Bolukbas, F., Keskin, F. & Polat, M. (2011). The effectiveness of cooperative learning in the reading comprehension skills in Turkish as a foreign language. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(4), 330-335.

Chung, T. M., & Nation, I. S. P. (2004). Identifying technical vocabulary. System, 32(2), 251-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2003.11.008

Clark, K. F., & Graves, M. F. (2005). Scaffolding students' comprehension of text: classroom teachers looking to improve students' comprehension should consider three general types of scaffolding. The Reading Teacher, 58(6), 570-581. https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.58.6.6

Cohen, J.W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral science (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Diaz-Rico, L.T., & Weed, K.Z. (2002). The cross-cultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide (2nd ed.). Boston: Ally & Bacon.

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2004). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP Model (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language teaching and learning. New York: Oxford University Press.

El Tatawy, M. (2002). Corrective feedback in second language acquisition. Working papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 1-19.

Garcia-Ponce, E., & Mora-Pablo, I. (2017). Exploring the effects of teachers' and learners' conflicting beliefs on the provision of corrective feedback during undisturbed classroom interactions. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal, 15, 125-148. https://doi.org/10.26817/16925777.393

Ghader, H., & Bahlooli Niri, M. R. (2016). The effect of pictorial presentation of vocabulary on EFL learners' retention. The Journal of Applied Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamics and Advances, 4(2), 101-114.

Hamzah, A. (2018). Picture word inductive model in vocabulary learning. English Education and Applied Linguistics (EEAL) Journal, 1(2), 138-141.

Hashemi Shahraki, S., & Kassaian, Z. (2011). Effects of learner interaction, receptive and productive learning tasks on vocabulary acquisition: An Iranian case. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15(1), 2165-2171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.073

Hayati, M., & Ziyaeimehr, Z. (2011). A Study on the effect of scaffolding through joint construction tasks on the writing composition of EFL learners. Studies in Literature and Language, 2(3), 92-102.

Hill, D. A. (1990). Visual Impact: Creative language learning through pictures. Essex: Longman Group UK Limited.

Hill, J. (2000). Revising priorities: From grammatical failure to collocational success. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Teaching collocation: Further development in the lexical approach (pp.47-69). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hoshino, Y. (2010). The categorical facilitation effects on L2 vocabulary learning in a classroom setting. RELCJ, 41(3), 301-312. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688210380558

Hüttner, J. (2005). Formulaic language and genre analysis: The case of student academic papers. Views, 14(1), 3-20.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (2014). Cooperative learning: Improving university instruction by basing practice on validated theory. Journal on Excellence in University Teaching, 25(3&4), 1-26.

Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman.

Laufer, B. (2011). The contribution of dictionary uses to the production and retention of collocations in a second language. International Journal of Lexicography, 24(1), 29-49. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecq039

Olaya, M., & González-González, G. (2020). Cooperative learning to foster reading skills. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal, 21, 119-139. https://doi.org/10.26817/16925777.835

Mashhadi, F., & Jamalifar, G. (2015). Second language vocabulary learning through visual and textual representation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 192(1), 298-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.043

McCarthy, M., & O'Dell, F. (2006). English collocations in use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Milton, J. (2009). Measuring second language vocabulary acquisition. Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692092

Nation, I. S. P. (2011). Research into practice: Vocabulary. Language Teaching, 44(4), 529-539. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000267

Nattinger, J. (1988). Some current trends in vocabulary teaching. In M. McCarthy & R. Carter (Eds.), Vocabulary and language teaching (pp. 62-82). New York: Longman.

Nesselhauf, N. (2005). Collocations in a learner corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamin. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.14

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667336

Poorahmadi, M. (2009). The effect of employing scaffolding strategies and classroom tasks in teaching reading comprehension. Journal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, 1(3), 87-106.

Renandya, W. A. (2012). The role of input- and output-based practice in ELT. In A. Ahmed, M. Hanzala, F. Saleem, & G. Cane (Eds.), ELT in a changing world: Innovative approaches to new challenges (pp. 1-12). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Roohani, A., Forootanfar, F., & Hashemian, M. (2017). Effect of input vs. collaborative output tasks on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' grammatical accuracy and willingness to communicate. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics, 8(2), 71-92.

Safadi, E., & Rababah, J.G. (2012). The effect of scaffolding on reading comprehension skills. International Journal of Language Studies, 6(2), 1-38.

Sadeghi, K., & Farzizadeh, B. (2013). The effect of visually-supported vocabulary instruction on beginner EFL learners' vocabulary gain. MEXTESOL Journal, 37(1), 1-12.

Salimi, A., & Shams, K. (2016). The effect of input-based and output-based instruction on EFL learners' autonomy in writing. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(3), 525-533. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0603.10

Sawyer, R.K. (2006). Analyzing collaborative discourse. In R.K. Sawyer (ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp.187-204). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816833.013

Schmidt, R. (1994). Implicit learning and the cognitive unconscious: Of artificial grammars and SLA. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp.165-210). London: Academic Press.

Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (pp. 97-114). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (2010). Talking it through: Languaging as a source of learning. In R. Batstone (Ed.), Sociocognitive perspectives on second language learning and use (pp. 112-130). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 320-337. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01209.x

Taiwo, R. (2004). Helping ESL learners to minimize collocation errors. The Internet TESL Journal, X (4), 1-5.

Thornbury, S. (2004). How to teach vocabulary. Longman: Pearson Education Limited.

Ünver, M. (2018). Lexical collocations: issues in teaching and ways to raise awareness. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(4), 114-125.

Vacca, J. (2008). Using scaffolding techniques to teach a social studies lesson about Buddha to sixth graders. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 51(8), 652-658. https://doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.51.8.4

Van Lier, L. (2010). The ecology and semiotics of language learning: A sociocultural perspective. Boston: Kluwer.

Verenikina, I. (2008). Scaffolding and learning: Its role in nurturing new learners. In P. Lell, W. Vialle, D. Konza, & G. Vogl (Eds.), Learning and the learner: exploring learning for new times (pp. 236-240). Wollongong, Australia: University of Wollongong.

Vosoughi, H., & Mehdipour, Z. (2013). Effects of recognition task and production task on incidental vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL learners. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(2), 356-363.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.

Wajnryb, R. (1990). Grammar dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Webb, S. (2005). Receptive and productive vocabulary learning: The effects of reading and writing on word knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(1), 33-52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050023

Westmacott, A. (2017). Direct vs. indirect written corrective feedback: student perceptions. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 22(1), 17-32. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v22n01a02

Zarei, A. A., & Gilanian, M. (2013). The effect of multimedia modes on L2 vocabulary learning. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 2(1), 1011-1020.

Zarei, G. R., & Khazaie, S. (2011). L2 vocabulary learning through multimodal representations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15(1), 369-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.104

Zarei, A. A., & Mousavi, M. (2016). The effects of feedback types on Learners' recognition of lexical collocations. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 5(2), 150-158. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.5n.2p.150




How to Cite

Naserpour, A., & Zarei, A. A. . (2021). On the Effectiveness of Scaffolding Strategies and Task orientation on Receptive and Productive Knowledge of Lexical Collocations. GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal, 23, 107–134. https://doi.org/10.26817/16925777.1130