The Effects of Pronunciation Anxiety and Motivation on English Learners’ Willingness to Communicate




EFL learner, pronunciation motivation, willingness to communicate, pronunciation anxiety


The present quantitative study intended to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' pronunciation anxiety (PA) and pronunciation motivation (PM) on their L2 willingness to communicate (L2 WTC) in English classes. Additionally, it aimed at identifying which of these two independent variables (PA or PM) could better predict their L2 WTC. To these aims, a convenient sample of 134 upper-intermediate EFL learners were recruited from two private language institutes in one of the large cities of Iran. Their proficiency level had already been determined by the institutes using written and oral placement tests. To gather the necessary data, three questionnaires, namely, Baran-Lucarz's (2017) PA, and PM, and Simić’s (2014) WTC questionnaires were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized to answer the research question of the study. Findings indicated that both variables under study, PA and PM, had significant correlations with learners’ L2 WTC. However, although results suggested that both independent variables predicted the learners' L2 WTC, PA was found to be a stronger predictor. Implications of the study findings and suggestions for further research are also offered.


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Author Biographies

Zahra Alimorad, Shiraz University, Iran

Zahra Alimorad is  an associate professor of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics of Shiraz University, Iran. She has published several papers in national and international journals and has presented in national and international conferences. Her areas of interest include L2 speaking, willingness to communicate, (de)motivation, perceptions, practice and identity. Email address: 


Farshad Adib, Shiraz University, Iran

Farshad Adib is an M.A. graduate of TEFL. He is currently teaching English at private language institutes in one of the cities of Iran. His areas of interest are speaking, grammar, and willingness to communicate. Email address:


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How to Cite

Alimorad, Z., & Adib, F. (2022). The Effects of Pronunciation Anxiety and Motivation on English Learners’ Willingness to Communicate. GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal, 25, 42–63.


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