Student Motivation in CORONAPOLIS: Effects of Transactional Distance Perceptions on EFL Undergraduate Students’ Motivation
Keywords:motivation, transactional distance, distance education, Covid-19, EFL, tertiary education
The concept of Transactional Distance (TD) experienced in distance education has been recorded as a focal point in many studies examining its effects in various dimensions in different courses. However, there is scarcity of research on TD in relation to learner motivation in language learning. This exploratory case study investigated TD perceptions of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) undergraduates participating in distance education courses held at a Turkish university within the boundaries of CORONAPOLIS, an imaginary city which is under the threat and destructive effects of Covid-19 pandemic. Specifically, this study examined the effects of TD perceptions on the motivation of 87 EFL students. The data were collected through the participants’ informal self-reports and open-ended questions. The results of the content analysis showed that the participants had varying perceptions of the dimensions of TD; dialogue, structure and autonomy. The results also showed that they had different motivational experiences in relation to their perceptions. In the light of the results, some pedagogical implications are made.
Abuseileek, A.F. (2012). The effect of computer-assisted cooperative learning methods and group size on the EFL learners' achievement in communication skills. Computers & Education, 58(1), 231-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.07.011
Alshumaimeri, Y., Alhumud, A.M. (2021). EFL students' perceptions of the effectiveness of virtual classrooms in enhancing communication skills. English Language Teaching, 14(11), 80-96.https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v14n11p80
Andresen, M. A. (2009). Asynchronous discussion forums: Success factors, outcomes, assessments, and limitations. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 249-257.
Arroba, J, & Acosta, H. (2021). Authentic digital storytelling as alternative teaching strategy to develop speaking skills in EFL classes. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14(1), 317-343. https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/LEARN/index
Balaman, U., & Sert, O. (2017). Development of L2 interactional resources for online collaborative task accomplishment. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(7), 601-630. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1334667
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods (5th Edition). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Bolliger, D., & Halupa, C. (2018). Online student perceptions of engagement, transactional distance, and outcomes. Distance Education, 39(3), 299-316, https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2018.1476845
Burgess, J. V. (2006). Transactional distance theory and student satisfaction with web-based distance learning courses. Doctoral Dissertation. The University of West Florida.
Chen, Y. (2001). Dimensions of transactional distance in the world wide web learning environment: A factor analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32(4), 459-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00213
Cho, M., & Tobias, S. (2016). Should instructors require discussion in online courses? Effects of online discussion on community of inquiry, learner time, satisfaction, and achievement. International Review of research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(2), 123-140.https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i2.2342
Correa, Y. R. (2015). SkypeTM conference calls: A way to promote speaking skills in the teaching and learning of English. Profile: Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 17(1), 143-156. https://doi.org/10.15446/profile.v17n1.41856
Desharnais, R. A., & Limson, M. (2007). designing and ımplementing virtual courseware to promote ınquiry-based learning. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 3(1), 30-39.
Dickinson, L. (1993). Talking Shop: aspects of autonomous learning. An interview with Leslie Dickinson. ELT Journal, 47(4), 330-336. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/47.4.330
Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Understanding L2 motivation: On with the challenge. The Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 515-523. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02071.xhttps://doi.org/10.2307/328590
Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31, 117-135. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480001315X
Drennan, J., Kennedy, J., & Pisarski, A. (2005). factors affecting student attitudes toward flexible online learning in management education. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(6), 331-338. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.98.6.331-338
Ekwunife-Orakwue, K.C., & Teng, T. (2014). The impact of transactional distance dialogic interactions on student learning outcomes in online and blended environments. Computers & Education, 78, 414-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.06.011
Falloon, G. (2011). Making the connection: Moore's theory of transactional distance and its relevance to the use of a virtual classroom in postgraduate online teacher education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(3), 187-209. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2011.10782569
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London, England: Edward Arnold Publishers.
Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2013). Audio-based versus text-based asynchronous online discussion: Two case studies. Instructional Sciences, 41, 365-380. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-012-9232-7
Hodges, C. B., & Kim, C. (2010). Email, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and achievement in a college online mathematics course. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(2), 207-223. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.43.2.d
Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning: Council of Europe. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Horzum, M. (2015). Interaction, structure, social presence, and satisfaction in online learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology, 11(3), 505-512. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2014.1324a
Huang, H., & Liaw, S. S. (2004). Guiding distance educators in building web-based ınstructions. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31(2), 125-136.
Huang, X., Chandra, A., DePaolo, C., Cribbs, J., & Simmons, L. (2015). Measuring transactional distance in web-based learning environments: An initial instrument development, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 30(2), 106-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680513.2015.1065720
Irizarry, R. (2002). Self-efficacy and motivation effects on online psychology student retention. USDLA Journal, 16(12), 55-64.
Jung, H. Y. (2006). Transactional distance and student motivation: Student perception of teacher immediacy, solidarity toward peer students and student motivation in distance education. Published Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation. West Virginia University. West Virginia.
Kara, M. (2020). Transactional distance and learner outcomes in an online EFL context. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680513.2020.1717454
Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G. (2017). Social presence and transactional distance as an antecedent to knowledge sharing in virtual learning communities. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(6), 844-864. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633116688319
Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G., & Yilmaz, R. (2020). The impact of feedback form on transactional distance and critical thinking skills in online discussions. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 57(1), 119-130. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2019.1612265
Keegan, D. (1990). The foundation of distance education. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Kocak, M. (2010). A novice teacher's action research on EFL learners' speaking anxiety Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 138-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.025
Kohn, K., & Hoffstaedter, P. (2017). Learner agency and non-native speaker identity in pedagogical lingua franca conversations: Insights from intercultural telecollaboration in foreign language education. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(5), 351-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1304966
Kostina, M. V. (2011). Exploration of student perceptions of autonomy, student-instructor dialogue and satisfaction in a web-based distance Russian language classroom: a mixed methods study. doctoral PhD diss., University of Iowa,
Lawyer, D. (2018). Freshman English composition, course modality, transactional distance theory, and student success. Published Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation. Capella University.
Lee, H., & Rha, I. (2009). Influence of structure and ınteraction on student achievement and satisfaction in web-based distance learning. Education Technology & Society, 12(4), 372-382.
Lenkaitis, C. A. (2020). Technology as a mediating tool: videoconferencing, L2 learning, and learner autonomy. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33, (5-6), 483-509. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2019.1572018
Lowell, N. O. (2004). An investigation of factors contributing to perceived transactional distance in an online setting. Published Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation. University of Northern Colorado.
Mbwesa, J.K. (2014). Transactional distance as a predictor of perceived learner satisfaction in distance learning courses: A case study of bachelor of education arts program, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2(2), 176-188. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v2i2.291
Moore, M.G. (1993). Theory of transactional distance. In D. Keegan (Ed.), Theoretical principles of distance education, 22-38. New York: Routledge.
Moore, M.G. (2007). Web 2.0: Does it really matter? American Journal of Distance Education, 21(4), 177-183. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923640701595183
Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G. (2005) Distance education: A systems view (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Nazara, A. (2011). Students' perception of EFL speaking skill development. Journal of English Teaching, 1(1), 28-43. https://doi.org/10.33541/jet.v1i1.50
Pelowski, S., Frissell, L., Cabral, K., & Yu, T. (2005). So far but yet so close: Student chat room immediacy, learning, and performance in an online course. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16, 395-407.
Robertson, J. S, Grant, M. M., & Jackson, L. (2005). Is online instruction perceived as effective as campus instruction by graduate students in education? The Internet and Higher Education 8, 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.12.004
Stein, D., Wanstreet, C., & Calvin, J. (2009). How a novice adult online learner experiences transactional distance. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 305-311.
Ustati, R., & Hassan, S.S. (2013). Distance learning students' need: Evaluating Moore's theory of transactional distance. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 292-304.
Vlachopoulos, D. & Marki, A. (2019). Online communication and interaction in distance higher education: A framework study of good practice. International Review of Education, 65,605-632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-019-09792-3
Vonderwell, S. (2003). An examination of asynchronous communication experiences and perspectives of students in an online course: A case study. Internet & Higher Education, 6(1), 77-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1096-7516(02)00164-1
Weidlich, J., & Bastiaens, T. (2018). Technology matters-The impact of transactional distance on satisfaction in online distance learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(3), 222-242. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v19i3.3417
Wengrowicz, N., Dori, Y., & Dori, D. (2014). Transactional distance in an undergraduate project-based systems modeling course. Knowledge-Based Systems 71, 41-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2014.05.022
Yilmaz, R., & Keser, H. (2015). Transactional distance perception and its reflections on distance education practices. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 48(2), 37-59.
Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473915480.n38
Zilka, G., Rahimi, I., & Cohen, R. (2019). Sense of challenge, threat, self-efficacy, and motivation of students learning in virtual and blended courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 33(1), 2-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2019.1554990
Zimmerman, D. (2012). Exploring learner to content interaction as a success factor in online courses. The International Review in Open and Distance learning, 13(4), 152-165. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v13i4.1302
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This document does not have Crossref citations yet.