EFL Students’ Perceptions of Activeness During the Implementation of Flipped Learning Approach at a Colombian University
Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach that provides students with more time in class to practice or to engage in dynamic tasks to promote active learning. Although the Flipped Learning research has become increasingly popular, limited research has been conducted in Colombia exploring students’ perceptions of this approach. This action research was carried out to explore students’ perceptions of activeness during the implementation of the Flipped Learning approach. The participants were 84 students from a state university in Colombia who were taking English as a complementary subject as part of their undergraduate degree programs. Students were exposed to this approach during a 16-week period in which they completed different pre-class, during-class, and post-class activities. Data collection instruments were designed based on the first three pillars of the approach: Flexible Environment, Learning Culture, and Intentional Content. Data were collected through immediate feedback, an online questionnaire, and a focus group interview, and were then analyzed in the light of these three pillars. The data indicated that students felt they were more engaged, their voices were heard, they felt increased ownership of their learning, and demonstrated a positive opinion towards collaborative work.
Afrilyasanti, R., Cahyono, B. Y., & Astuti, U. P. (2016). Effect of flipped classroom model on Indonesian EFL students’ writing ability across and individual differences in learning. International Journal of English Language and Linguistics Research, 4(5), 65-81.
Altrichter, H., Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Zuber-Skerritt, O. (2002). The concept of action research. The learning organization, 9(3), 125-131.
Al‐Zahrani, A. M. (2015). From passive to active: The impact of the flipped classroom through social learning platforms on higher education students’ creative thinking. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(6), 1133-1148.
Baker, J. W. (2000, April). The “classroom flip”: Using web course management tools to become a guide by the side. Paper presented at the 11th international conference on college teaching and learning, Jacksonville, FL.
Barkhuizen, G. P. (1998). Discovering learners’ perceptions of ESL classroom teaching/learning activities in a South African context. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 85-108.
Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (1st Ed.). (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. United States: International Society for Technology in Education.
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (1st Ed.). (2014). Flipped learning: Gateway to student engagement. United States: International Society for Technology in Education.
Bishop, J. L. & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. Presented at the ASEE National Conference Proceedings, Atlanta, GA.
Bonwell, C. C. & Eison, J. A. (1st Ed.). (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. United States: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education.
Brown, J. K. (2008). Student-centered instruction: Involving students in their own education. Music Educators Journal, 94(5), 30-35.
Buitrago C.R., Díaz J. (2018) Flipping Your Writing Lessons: Optimizing Time in Your EFL Writing Classroom. In:
Mehring J., Leis A. (1st. ed.) Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom. (pp. 69-91). Singapore, Springer.
Butt, A. (2014). Student views on the use of a flipped classroom approach: Evidence from Australia. Business Education & Accreditation, 6(1), 33-43.
Chao, C. Y., Chen, Y. T., & Chuang, K. Y. (2015). Exploring students’ learning attitude and achievement in flipped learning supported computer-aided design curriculum: A study in high school engineering education. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 23(4), 514-526.
Clark, K. R. (2015). The effects of the flipped model of instruction on student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom. Journal of Educators Online, 12(1), 91-115.
Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K. (2007) Approaches to Qualitative Data Analysis. Research Methods in Education. (pp. 475 –491) New York, NY: Routledge.
Denscombe, M. (5th Ed.). (2004). The good research guide: for small- scale social research projects. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill Education.
Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (2014, March 12). The four pillars of F-LI-P. Retrieved from http://www.flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/46/FLIP_handout_FLN_Web.pdf
Flores, N. & Savage, S. J. (2007). Student demand for streaming lecture video: Empirical evidence from undergraduate economics classes. International Review of Economics Education, 6(2), 57-78.
Garay, N. A., & Torregrosa, T. M. (2016). The development of listening skill and autonomous behaviors through the implementation of the flipped learning approach (Master’s thesis, Universidad de La Sabana). Retrieved from https://intellectum.unisabana.edu.co/bitstream/handle/10818/27926/Natalia%20Andrea%20Garay%20V%C3%A1squez%20(Tesis).pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Graney J.M. (2018) Flipped Learning and Formative Assessment in an English Language Class.In: Mehring J., Leis A. (1st. ed.) Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom. (pp.59-68). Singapore, Springer.
Han, Y. J. (2018). Flipping Tech-Enhanced, Content-Based EAP Courses with Online Content. In Mehring J., Leis A. (1st. ed.) Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom (pp. 203-220). Singapore, Springer.
Hernandez, A. P., & Torres F. C. (2017) Exploring the influence of flipped learning strategy on tenth graders writing process at two public schools in Bogota: A route towards differentiation. (Master’s thesis, Universidad de La Sabana). Retrieved from https://intellectum.unisabana.edu.co/handle/10818/31205.
Hung, H. T. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81-96.
Johnson, G. B. (2013). Student perceptions of the flipped classroom (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia). Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/24/ items/1.0073641
Kim, E. (2008). Status quo of CLT-based English curricular reform: A teacher’s voice from the classroom. English Teaching, 63(2), 43-69.
Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2006). Study efficacy and the region of proximal learning framework. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(3), 609-622.
Maher, M., Lipford, H., & Singh, V. (2013). Flipped classroom strategies using online videos. Technical Report, Center for Education Innovation, University of North Carolina, Charlotte. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f988/1dfa9c8762149686098a9821087caaade7da.pdf
Mizokami, S. (2018). Deep Active Learning from the Perspective of Active Learning Theory. In Deep Active Learning (pp. 79-91). Springer, Singapore.
Mosher, S. G. E. (2016). Elementary Students’And Teachers’Perceptions Of Flipped Mathematics Lessons (Doctoral dissertation, University of England). Retrieved from http://dune.une.edu/theses/93/
Ni’mah, W. (2015). The use of buzz group technique to enhance students’ activeness and writing skill of hortatory exposition text (a classroom action research with the eleventh-grade students of MA Al Khoiriyyah Semarang in the academic year (Doctoral dissertation UIN Walisongo).Retrieved from http://eprints.walisongo.ac.id/4576/.
Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of engineering education, 93(3), 223-231.
Rana, J., & Burgin, S. (2018). Teaching & Learning Tips 3: Active learning strategies. International journal of dermatology, 57(1), 79- 82.
Ramirez, M. (2018) Flipping a Pronunciation Lesson for a Teacher Training Course. In: Mehring J., Leis A. (1st. eds) Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom. (pp.45-57). Singapore, Springer.
Ramirez, M. (2018) In-Class Flip: Flipping a Literature Class for Student-Centered Learning. In: Mehring J., Leis A. (1st. ed.) Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom. (pp.93-103). Singapore, Springer.
Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L. & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The flipped classroom: An opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 44-49.
Roach, T. (2014). Student perceptions toward flipped learning: New methods to increase interaction and active learning in economics. International review of economics education, 17, 74-84.
Sabin, J., & Olive, A. (2018). Slack: Adopting Social-Networking Platforms for Active Learning. PS: Political Science & Politics, 51(1), 183-189.
Siegle, D. (2014). Differentiating instruction by flipping the classroom. Gifted Child Today, 37(1), 51–55.
Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning environments research, 15(2), 171-193.
Talbert, R. (2018, February 13). Published research on flipped learning 2000-2017 (Version 1). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5882818.v1
Tohei, A.A. (2018) Flipping EFL Classes for Future Teachers. In: Mehring J., Leis A. (1st, ed) Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom. Singapore, Springer.
Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom. Education Next, 12(1), 82- 83.
Wagner-Loera, D. (2018). Flipping the ESL/EFL Classroom to Reduce Cognitive Load: A New Way of Organizing Your Classroom in: Mehring J., Leis A. (1st. ed.). Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom (pp. 169-184). Singapore, Springer.
Wanner, T., & Palmer, E. (2015). Personalizing learning: Exploring student and teacher perceptions about flexible learning and assessment in a flipped university course. Computers & Education, 88, 354-369.
Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. (1st ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Yeo, M. (2018) Flipping or Flopping: Lessons Learnt from Flipping a Course for ASEAN Teachers of English. In:
Mehring J., Leis A. (1st. ed.) Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom. (pp.23-44). Singapore, Springer.
Zainuddin, Z & Attaran, M. (2016). Malaysian students’ perceptions of the flipped classroom: A case study. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53(6), 660-670.