Toward More Equitable Language Learning and Teaching Frameworks For Our ELT Community: Moving from EFL to ECL to CE

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26817/16925777.1137

Keywords:

Colombian English, language equity, ELT, English as a Foreign Language

Abstract

Over the past decade, different scholars in ELT have raised questions about the notion of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and the growing issues related to inequity that such a framework has raised. Our field in Colombia needs to interrogate the very frameworks and concepts we use to define the language and how those definitions will include us or exclude us from the larger global conversations in the field of ELT and related ones as a way to remain active and relevant in years to come. This article proposes moving from English as a Foreign Language (EFL) into English as a Colombian Language (ECL) as the intermediate step toward Colombian English (CE). This article will first problematize EFL as a segue into detailing the transition and some considerations involving our views of English and teacher education.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Raúl Alberto Mora, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Colombia

is associate professor at the School of Education and Pedagogy at UPB in Medellín, Colombia (currently residing in Trondheim, Norway). Dr. Mora chairs the award-winning Literacies in Second Languages Project research lab (part of the Pedagogies and Didactics of Knowledge research group at UPB). Dr. Mora’s research focuses on the use of literacies theory to understand second language practices in and out of schools and uses sociocritical frameworks to talk about languages and bilingualism in today’s world, ideas that are reflected in his scholarship and advocacy efforts to promote the Global South as a veritable knowledge center.

References

Bamberg, M. (2004). Considering counter-narratives. In M. Bamberg, & M. Andrews, (Eds.). Considering Counter-Narratives: Narrating, Resisting, Making Sense (pp. 351-371). John Benjamins Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1075/sin.4

Black, R. W. (2009). English‐language learners, fan communities, and 21st‐century skills. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(8), 688-697. https://doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.52.8.4

Bonilla Medina, S. X., & Cruz Arcila, F. (2013). Sociocultural factors involved in the teaching of English as foreign language in rural areas of Colombia: An analysis of the impact on teachers' professional development. Research in Teacher Education, 3(2), 28-33. https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/85w1y

Brittain, E. (2020). Reinforcement of White Native-Speakerism: An Analysis of English Language Teacher Training Materials. GATESOL in Action Journal, 30(1), 16-31. https://doi.org/10.52242/giaj.v30i1.105

Canagarajah, A. S. (2006). The place of World Englishes in composition: Pluralization continued. College Composition and Communication, 57(4), 586-619.

Chang-Bacon, C. K. (2021). Monolingual language ideologies and the idealized speaker: The "new bilingualism" meets the "old" educational inequities. Teachers College Record, 123(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/016146812112300106

Cruz Arcila, F. (2018). The Wisdom of teachers' personal theories: Creative ELT practices from Colombian rural schools. Profile: Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 20(2), 65-78. https://doi.org/10.15446/profile.v20n2.67142

Cuasilpud Canchala, R. E. (2010). Indigenous students' attitudes towards learning English through a virtual program: A study in a Colombian public university. PROFILE, 12(2), 133-152.

Escobar Alméciga, W. Y. & Gómez Lobatón, J. C. (2010). Silenced fighters: Identity, language and thought of the Nasa people in bilingual contexts of Colombia. Profile: Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 12(2), 125-140.

Finn, P. J. (2010). Literacy with an attitude: Educating working-class children in their own self-interest. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Flores, N. (2020). From academic language to language architecture: Challenging raciolinguistic ideologies in research and practice. Theory into Practice, 59(1), 22-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2019.1665411

Forbes, D. (1993). Singlish. English Today, 9(2), 18-22. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078400000304

Freire, P. (1979). Conscientização: Teoria e prática da libertação, uma introdução ao pensamento de Paulo Freire. São Paulo: Cortez & Moraes.

González, A. (2010). English and English teaching in Colombia: Tensions and possibilities in the expanding circle. In A. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes (pp. 354-374). Routledge.

Graddol, D. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of 'English as a Foreign Language'. London, UK: The British Council.

Guerrero, C. H. (2009). Language policies in Colombia: The inherited disdain for our native languages. HOW Journal, 16, 11-24.

Hammond, J. & Macken-Horarik, M. (1999). Critical literacy: Challenges and questions for ESL classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 33(3), 529-544. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587678

Higgins, C. (2009). English as a local language: Post-colonial identities and multilingual practices. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691828

Jaraba Ramírez, D. L., & Arrieta Carrascal, A. (2012). Etnoenglish: Weaving words, stories and life projects of the Zenú people. Íkala, revista de lenguaje y cultura, 17(1), 95-104.Ko, 2013

Ko, M-Y. (2013). A case study of an EFL teacher's critical literacy teaching in a reading class in Taiwan. Language Teaching Research, 17(1), 91-108. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168812457537

Lau, S. M. C. (2012). Reconceptualizing critical literacy in ESL classrooms. The Reading Teacher, 66(5), 325-329. https://doi.org/10.1002/TRTR.01050

León Corredor, O. L. & Calderón, D. I. (2010). Bilingualism of Colombian deaf children in the teaching-learning of mathematics in the first year of elementary school. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 12(2), 9-24. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487085.80

Lave, J. W., & Wenger, E. E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355

Luke, A. (2012). Critical literacy: Foundational notes. Theory into Practice, 51, 4-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2012.636324

Mali, T. (2002). Totally like whatever, you know? Retrieved from https://taylormali.com/poems/totally-like-whatever-you-know/

Medina, R., Ramírez, M., & Clavijo, C. (2015). Reading the community critically in the digital age: a multiliteracies approach. In P. Chamness

Miller., Mantero. M, & Hendo. H (Eds). ISLS Readings in Language Studies: Vol. 5. (pp. 45-66).

Mora R. A. (2011, August). ESL/EFL: Still a viable binary? 2nd Colloquia on Research and Innovation in Foreign Language Education 2011, Bogotá D.C., Colombia

Mora R. A. (2012b, October). Rethinking the second/foreign language dichotomy: Can we still talk about foreign languages in today's language ecologies? 47th ASOCOPI Annual Conference, Tuluá (Valle), Colombia.

Mora, R. A. (2013). The notion of second languages: Responding to today's linguistic ecologies. The Journal for ESL Teachers and Learners, Vol. II, 53-61. http://www.confluenceindia.co.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/8-Raul-Mora.pdf

Mora, R. A. (2014a). Conscientização. Key Concepts in Intercultural Dialogue, 42. ttps://centerforinterculturaldialogue.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/key-concepts-conscientizaccca7acc83o.pdf

Mora, R. A. (2014b). Critical literacy as policy and advocacy: Lessons from Colombia. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 58(1). 16-18. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.329

Mora, R. A. (2014c). Counter-narrative. Key Concepts in Intercultural Dialogue, 36. http://centerforinterculturaldialogue.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/key-concept-counter-narrative.pdf

Mora, R. A. (2014d). Language ecology. Key Concepts in Intercultural Dialogue, 13. http://centerforinterculturaldialogue.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/key-concept-language-ecology.pdf

Mora, R. A. (2014e) Rethinking the intersection between technology, digital literacies and language ecologies. ENLETAWA Journal, 7, 115-128. https://revistas.uptc.edu.co/index.php/enletawa_journal/article/view/3695/3264

Mora. R. A. (2015, April). Rethinking today's language ecologies: New questions about language use and literacy practices. Global Conversations in Literacy Research. https://youtu.be/CMLnXwx3lRY

Mora, R. A. (2016c). Glocalized advocacy. LSLP Micro-Papers, 37. https://www.literaciesinl2project.org/uploads/3/8/9/7/38976989/lslp-micro-paper-37-glocalized-advocacy.pdf

Mora, R. A. & Golovátina-Mora, P. (2017). A new model for reflexivity and advocacy for master's-level EIL in-service programs in Colombia: The notion of "learning and teaching processes in second languages". In A. Matsuda (Ed.), Preparing teachers to teach English as an International Language (pp. 35-50). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783097036-005

Mora, R. A., Pulgarín, C., Ramírez, N., & Mejía-Vélez, M. C. (2018). English literacies in Medellin: The city as literacy. In S. Nichols and S. Dobson (Eds.), Learning cities: Multimodal explorations and placed pedagogies (pp. 37-60). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8100-2_4

Mora, R. A., Chiquito, T., & Zapata, J. D. (2019). Bilingual education policies in Colombia: Seeking relevant and sustainable frameworks for meaningful minority inclusion. In B. G. G. Johannessen (Ed.), Bilingual education: Politics, policies, and practices in a globalized society (pp. 55-77). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05496-0_4

Mora, R. A., Campano, G., Thomas, E. E., Stornaiuolo, A., Monea, B., Thakurta, A., & Coleman, J. J. (2020). Decentering and decentralizing literacy studies: An urgent call for our field. Research in the Teaching of English, 54(4), 313-317. https://library.ncte.org/journals/rte/issues/v54-4/30735

Mora, R. A., Gee, J. P., Hernandez, M., Castaño, S., Orrego, T. S., & Ramírez, D. (2020). Literacies of play: blazing the trail, uncharted territories, and hurrying up - #TeamLaV's interview with James Paul Gee. In A. Garcia, S. Witte, & J. Dail (Eds.), Studying Gaming Literacies: Theories to Inform Classroom Practice (pp. 53-62). Brill/Sense. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004429840_006

Mora, R. A., Cañas, C., Gutiérrez-Arismendy, G., Ramírez, N. A., Gaviria, C. A., & Golovátina-Mora, P. (2021). Critical literacies in Colombia: Social transformation and disruption ingrained in our local realities. In J. Z. Pandya, R. A. Mora, J. H. Alford, N. A. Golden, & R. S. de Roock (Eds.), The Handbook of Critical Literacies (pp. 151-158). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003023425-17

Pennycook, A. (2001). Critical applied linguistics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410600790

Phillipson, R. & Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1996). English Only worldwide or language ecology? TESOL Quarterly, 30(3), 429-452. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587692

Rajagopalan, K. (2010). The English language, globalization and Latin America: Possible lessons from the 'outer circle'. In M. Saxena & T. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692764-012

Omoniyi (Eds.), Contending with Globalization in World Englishes (pp. 175-194). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Ramjattan, V. A. (2017). Racist nativist microaggressions and the professional resistance of racialized English language teachers in Toronto. Race Ethnicity and Education, 22(3), 374-390. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2017.1377171

Ramjattan, V. A. (2019). The white native speaker and inequality regimes in the private English language school. Intercultural Education, 30(2), 126-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2018.1538043

Ramos Holguín, B., Aguirre Morales, J., & Hernández, C. M. (2012). A pedagogical experience to delve into students' sense of cultural belonging and intercultural understanding in a rural school. HOW Journal, 19, 123-145.

Reimers, F. M. (Ed.) (2021). Implementing deeper Learning and 21st education reforms: Building an education renaissance after a global pandemic. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57039-2

Reyes, I. (2009). An ecological perspective on minority and majority language and literacy communities in the Americas. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, (11), 106-114. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487085.157

Rincón, J., & Clavijo-Olarte, A. (2016). Fostering EFL learners' literacies through local inquiry in a multimodal experience. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 18(2), 67-82. https://doi.org/10.14483/calj.v18n2.10610

Rosa, J. D. (2016). Standardization, racialization, languagelessness: Raciolinguistic ideologies across communicative contexts. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 26(2), 162-183. https://doi.org/10.1111/jola.12116

Rosa, J., & Flores, N. (2017). Unsettling race and language: Toward a raciolinguistic perspective. Language in society, 46(5), 621-647. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404517000562

Sharkey, J., Clavijo Olarte, A., & Ramírez, L. M. (2016). Developing a deeper understanding of community-based pedagogies with teachers: Learning with and from teachers in Colombia. Journal of Teacher Education, 67(4), 306-319. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487116654005

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2009, January). The stakes: Linguistic diversity, linguistic human rights and mother-tongue-based multilingual education-or linguistic genocide, crimes against humanity and an even faster destruction of biodiversity and our planet. Keynote presentation at the Bamako International Forum on Multilingualism, Bamako, Mali

Solórzano, D. G., & Yosso, T. J. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23-44. https://doi.org/10.1177/107780040200800103

Sutton, M. J., & Jorge, C. F. B. (2020). Potential for radical change in Higher Education learning spaces after the pandemic. Journal of Applied Learning and Teaching, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2020.3.1.20

Tochon, F. V. (2009). The key to global understanding: World languages education. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 650-681. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654308325898

Trigos-Carrillo, L. (2019b), Community cultural wealth and literacy capital in Latin American communities. English Teaching: Practice & Critique, 19(1), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/ETPC-05-2019-0071

Willis, A. I. (2009). EduPolitical research: Reading between the lines. Educational Researcher, 38(7), 528-536. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09347584

Yi, Y., & Jang, J. (2020). Envisioning possibilities amid the COVID‐19 pandemic: Implications from English language teaching in South Korea. TESOL Journal, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.543

Zuluaga Corrales, C. T., López Pinzón, M. M., & Quintero Corzo, J. (2009). Integrating the coffee culture with the teaching of English. PROFILE Issues in Teachers Professional Development, 11(2), 27-42.

Downloads

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Mora, R. A. (2022). Toward More Equitable Language Learning and Teaching Frameworks For Our ELT Community: Moving from EFL to ECL to CE. GIST – Education and Learning Research Journal, 24, 25–42. https://doi.org/10.26817/16925777.1137